Volvo Motorsport Typology Gen1-Gen4. (UNDER CONSTRUCTION)

When the development in motorsport stands still no progress will take place. Here I list (as good as all) details that came for each and every year in Volvo's development, that came for the Volvo 240 Turbo i Group-A. I will start in 1983 and go on to 1986 (however the real development didn't start until 1984 at Volvo). I will only go after the European regulation and not after the Swedish regulation, that changed in 1989 here in Sweden. Some things that are mentioned here is also mentioned on the site from earlier however new things will also be mentioned here.

Here is how it was , we have a Gen1-Gen4 (Generation - and sometimes Gen3, for example, could occur as late in 1986 and so on)

Gen1 = 1983

Gen2 = 1984

Gen3 = 1985

Gen4 = 1986




Volvo 240 chassis make

When it came to the chassis it self nothing was changed from the year 1983 to 1986, as the chassis/body must be left untouched, in other word it was not allowed to modify the chassis in any way, such as take away weight, widen the body or to modify the angles on suspension point and so on. So the chassis was left as it was 1983-1986.

And as you can see on pic 1-2, it shows the standard Volvo 240 chassis but reinforced. 1. It was allowed to strengthen the chassis, what you did was spot welding to make the chassis more durable and stronger. 2. A roll cage was also put in the chassis, this to make the chassis stiffer but more important to protect the driver in case of he or she might hit something. (even if we all know that the Volvo 240 chassis is built like a tank)

In pic 3-4 you see one detail that seperate them from each other (can you tell what detail?). But okay, I'll tell you... In the beginning of the season 1983 the cars had no rear wing/spoiler. The wing did not come until the end of the season of -83, first time the wing was used was at Silverstone (pic 4).

There were also two different fronts of the cars (pic 5-6), from the get go the cars had the old GLT-front (pic 5) but later in -83 the front was replaced to the new GLT-front (pic 6). Also the head lights, here there were two different models used, the TL Racing team used the USA head lights from the start of the season, and was also the only team that used the USA head lights (pic 6). This as it was only to test and was later replaced with the regular European head lights, where the head lights later was replaced with glas in plastic, this to save weight.

In conclusion regarding the chassis part from 1983 was that one car had the old tail lights, those were only present until 1980. This was the Infra Paint car (pic 7), and if you look closely you can tell the different between the cars in pic 7 and 8, as the car in pic 8 is a 1984 model. One other interesting detail if you look on the pic 8, the interesting thing here is that the air jacks have been placed in the rear (behind the fuel cell), as the more traditional place to put the air jacks is under the floor in front of the rear wheels (look a pic 4). However the only team that placed the air jacks in the rear end like that was the Belgian Dealer team 1984. Yet one other important thing to mention is that several platings were replaced, such as the hood, trunk lid, front fenders and doors. It went from being 0,9 mm in thickness to 0,6 mm in thickness, this also to save weight. Some chassis were even acid dipped to loose some weight.

1. (Infra Paint-car #240A)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
2. (Belgium-car #240A 405)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
3. (Infra Paint-car #240A)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
4. (TL Racing-car #TL 2401)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
5. (TL Racing-car #TL 2401)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
6. (TL Racing-car #TL 2401)

(Photo: Rudolf Freid)
 
7. (Infra Paint-car #240A)

(Photo: Rudolf Freid)  
8. (Belgium-car #240A 406)

(Photo: Rudolf Freid)  



Roll cage

Regarding the roll cages, there were different models, available in 1983 but already in 1984 a new roll cage came, this model was used until it was banned in the early 1990's.

Gen1 1983

Roll cage made in aluminum from Matter in Germany (was only built for the 242-model), this was a roll cage the was partly bolted and partly welded on to the chassis, the total weight was 20 kilograms. Few tubes to save weight. Was approved by FISA (FIA) in February 1983.

1. (Infra Paint-car #240A)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
2. (Infra Paint-car #240A)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
3. (Sune Ohlsson's car)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
4. (Sune Ohlsson's car)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
5. (Sune Ohlsson's car)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 


Gen2 1984

Roll cage made from aluminum by Rubi in Germany. Was a bolted rollcage (only attachment points were welded) consisting of 20 parts (tubes) and with a total weight of 29 kilograms. There were two different models of the Rubi cage, (se pic 10-11), the thing that seperated these cages from each other was the number of tubes (parts), and it had a total weight of 20 kilograms with 9 lesser tubes. Howerver its never been noted that the roll cage from Rubi with lesser tubes was ever used.

1. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
2. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
3. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
4. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
5. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
6. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)
*
(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
7. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
8. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
9. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
10.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
11.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
12.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
 
13.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  
14.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)  



Centre-bolt hub

This was something that was necessary as it was important to be able to change the wheels fast, while at the pitstops, the change for fresh tires. All team (the factory teams) used the same model. Volvo manufactured their own hub to fit with the Ronal-, BBS- and the Speedline wheels.


Gen1 1983

The first generation of centre-bolt hubs in 1983 were more of a simple model, as the hub was bolted onto the original Volvo 5-bolt hub. (pic 1 - however another model shown for illustration). A lose cluth was pressed into the centre of the wheel to fit with the loose hub, as often 5-bolt wheels were used (pic 2). In 1983 these loose centre-bolt hubs were manufactured by TL Racing. Also a more simple nut was used in 1983 (pic 2).

1.


 
2.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
3.

(Photo: Peggen Andersson)
4.

(Photo: Joakim Ljungberg)


Gen2 1984

Already in 1984 Volvo had started to produce their own complete centre-bolt hubs, bolted direct on to the strut. And to secure the hub on to the wheel axle a special locking nut was screwed in place (pic 4, 6-7). Also new drive shaft were produced with centre-bolt locking, where the hub was welded on to the drive shaft. And a new nut from BBS was used (pic 11-12).

1.

(Photo: Lars Thenander)  
 
2. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
3.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
4.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
5.

(Photo: Torbjörn Johansson)
 
6.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
7.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
8.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
9.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
10.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
11.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
12.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)


Gen3 1986

No updates were made on the centre-bolt hub in 1985 but in 1986 Volvo manufactured a new hub, a hub with cooling flanges, this to cool the wheel bearing.

1. (Leif Wiik/ VMS #604)

(Photo: Leif Wiik)  
2.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)



Calipers/ Disc/ Bellhousing for the disc

Brakes was something that always needed imporvement and better performance. And new brakes were always tested, also discs and the bellhouse for the discs. To increase cooling for the brakes and so on.


Gen1 1983

 

1.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
2.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)


Gen2 1984

The second generation brakes (Gen2) was not that different than the first generation of brakes (Gen1), as the same 4-pot calipers were used from AP, also common known as "Closeback calipers". However when it came to the brake discs and the brake bellhouse there were a greater difference, as the discs were larger now and better not to mention. The rear disc was 25.4 mm thick x 280 mm in diameter and the front disc was 30 mm thick x 315 mm in diameter, both discs were ventilated and slotted. However have in mind that some team still used the old Volvo 240 Turbo brakes but with racing brake pads in 1984.

1. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
2. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)


Gen3 1985

The third year for Volvo in Group-A and also the third generation brakes (Gen3) was better, the front caliper was bigger, also again, from AP. A new brake front disc was also introduced, 28 mm thick x 330 mm in diameter (pic 2). And a new bellhouse (front and rear) was manufactured. The rear caliper was the same as in 1984.

1. (R.A.S. Sport #602)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
2. (R.A.S. Sport #602)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
3. (#AL 8601)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 


Gen4 1986

The last generation brakes was a big tune-up, as brakes from Brembo was introduced (pic 1-3), both calipers, brake discs (rear disc was both slotted and "drilled" ) and bellhouse was of new model. The brakes from Brembo weight 10 kilograms lesser then the AP-brakes (the Brembo was also less expensive then the AP). The new front bellhouse was ventiled  (pic 2 & 6). And there were two different rear calipers available (pic 3 & 7) from Brembo.

But the foremost update in 1986 was (something Volvo was first with) a ABS-brake system, (pic 4-5), in pic 4 you can see the ABS-sensor and in pic 5 you can see the ABS-kogg.

Important to tell regarding the Brembo-brakes and the ABS-system was that this was only used for testing, the Brembo-brakes was tested out in selected races while the ABS-system never was tested during a race but only during practice prior to a race.

1. (Leif Wiik/ VMS #604)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives
 
2. (Leif Wiik/ VMS #604)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
3. (VMS #607)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
4. (Leif Wiik/ VMS #604)

(Photo: Kari Hakanen)
 
5. (Leif Wiik/ VMS #604)

(Photo: Leif Wiik)
 
6.

(
Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
7.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 



Bränsleinsprutning

Fuel, maybe the engines most important ingridient to run and go! There were a big variation and ideas how the fuel was to be transported from the tank (fuel cell) to the engine.


Gen1 1983

The first generation (Gen1) fuel injection system, was a modified Volvo 240 Turbo Bosch K-Jettronic system.

1.

 
2.

 
3.

 
4.

 
5.
6.



Gen2 1984-1986

Bosch K-Jetronic CIS fuel injection system (Porsche), continous injection with a 8 chamber mechanial fuel injection head, 4 chambers was blocked as the engine only had 4 cylinders (special ordered by Volvo from Bosch, Germany).

Special built air boxes in fibreglas epoxi for the system (pic 7-16), designed and built by Leif Frykås on Volvo Motorsport.

(Now those teams that couldn't afford this expensive system built a good replacement; where the fuel head came from a Mercedes V8 and the the airflow meter and sensor plate from a Porsche 928. It looked exactly as the other system only the inner parts seperated them apart).

1.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives
 
2.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
3.  
(Photo:240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
4.

(Photo: Kari Hakanen)
 
5.

(Photo: Leif Wiik)
 
6.

(
Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
7.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
8.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
9.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
10.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
11.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
12.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
13.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
14.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
15.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
16.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)



Tank and fuel system

One important key parts is the fuel in race cars, and how to keep it safe. A race car must have a fuel cell filled with foam material, this to prevent the fuel from ripple around in the fuel cell, and the cell had to be protected in a safety tank.


Gen1 1983

The first generations Group-A cars fuel system was nothing fancy, and the safty tank and fuel cell was placed in the trunk. The fuel cell could take 125 liters that was fuel in under only 25 seconds. This system, having the fuel tank in the trunk, was not optimal from a weight distribution point of view, as the weight sits to high in the car and above the rear axle and that's negative.

Holes were made in the trunk lid to be able to refuel the car as fast as possible (pic 2).

1. (TL Racing-car #TL 2401)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
2. (TL Racing-car #TL 2401 - Tage Lindström)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)


Gen2 1984

In 1984 the fuel cell and safety tank had been placed under the car, behind the rear axle, this was much better from a weight distribution point of view, as the weight sits lower in the car and that is positive. Now also a catch tank was placed in the trunk (to the right of the battery in pic 1), this to prevent unnecessary stops by always have fuel in the system, the catch tank could take 5 liters. In pic 4 you can see the foam filled fuel cell that was placed in the safety tank that you can see in pic 2.

1. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
2. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
3. (Luna-car #1 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
4.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)


Gen3 1985

In 1985 there were no major updates, only a new console for the refueling system and that the catch tank was moved far to the right better from a weight distribution point of view.

1. (Eggenberger Motorsport #502)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)


Gen4 1986

For 1986 there were no drastic changes made, mostly the apperance was changed. Consoles and attachment point was changed for the fuel valves (pic 1-2). Howerver the catch tank was made bigger in -86 (pic 4), it could take 10 liter of fuel, this to be able to take more fuel in the car. Note in pic 1 and 2 that the catch tank have been placed to the right (1) and to the left (2) in the trunk, this was made out of a weight distribution point of view.

1. (Leif Wiik/ VMS #604)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
2. (R.A.S. Sport #602)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
3. (Leif Wiik/ VMS #604)
4.
(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives) (Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)


Struts and shocks (dampers)

Something a race car must have is good track, this to be able to drive as fast as possible and to cut corners better for example. Here everything was important; the shocks and the wheel suspensions and so on. Most parts when it came to steeríng and the suspension regular joints were replaced with uniballs.


Gen1 1983





Gen2 1984





Gen3 1985


Gen4 1986






Hjulupphängning Fram



Gen1 1983

Första generationens hjulupphängning är en helt original montering.

 
(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)


Gen2 1984

Som till synes så sker inga förändringar på hjulupphängningen under 1984, allt är "över disk" standard delar.

1. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
2.


 
3. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 


Gen3 1985

Stora förändringar gjordes på upphängningen under 1985, alla ordinarie gummileder har blivit utbytta mot bättre dito uniballs. En helt ny länk 2-delad länkarm med uniballs ändar, i aluminium, och helt justerbar för caster samt camber. Dessa länkarmar togs fram av Eggenberger Motorsport 1985 och kostade då ca 6000kr/paret. Nya distanser och fästen togs också fram (se card 4-5). Det dök även upp en rörkrängningshämmare (se card 6-7).

1. (R.A.S. Sport #602)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
2.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
3. (AVDT #8601)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
4. (R.A.S. Sport #602)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
5.

(Photo: Thor Rustad)
 
6.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
7.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 


Gen4 1986

En nyhet som kom 1986 var en ny 2-delad aluminium länkarm med uniballs, även den med justerbar caster och camber. Denna var unik och något Volvo Motorsport själva tog fram, den var lättare (snyggare också!?). Dessa länkarmar användes dock inte hela säsongen 1986, endast två carar kördes med dessa övriga carar körde med Gen3 länkarmarna.

1. (Leif Wiik/ VMS #604)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
2. (Leif Wiik/ VMS #604)

(Photo: Kari Hakanen)
 
3. (Leif Wiik/ VMS #604)

(Photo: Kari Hakanen)
4. (Leif Wiik/ VMS #604)

(Photo: Kari Hakanen)



Hjulupphängning Bak


Gen1 1983





Gen2 1984

Helt standard bakvagn bortsett från några detaljer så som i card 2 och 4 (momentstag med uniballs i vardera (eller endast en) ände). Man hade flyttat ned stagen för att få en rakare linje på den. Något man även gjorde var att man skränkte bakaxeln, vilket innebar att man "knäckte" drivaxelrören så att man kunde få en negativ camber, och dessa hade ca 0,8 grader negativ camber.

1. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
2. (Luna-car #2 #240A 403)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
3.

 
4.

(Photo: Thor Rustad)


Gen3 1985

I år hade Volvo ingen standard bakvagn! Man bytte ut allt i stort sett, man hade nya länkarmar i aluminium som endast vägde 4kg (se card 5), ett rakt och styvare tvärstag med uniball ändar som endast vägde 1,2kg (se card 6) och den största nyheten var en 3-delad bakaxel; Differentialshuset i aluminium och drivaxel rör även i aluminium som hade 1-,1,5 grad negativ camber (se card 3-4). På denna bakaxel så sparade man in totalt 4kg i jämförelse. Dessa bakaxlar hade ett eget oljekylningssystem. Nya momentstag kom 1985 som gjorde att man sparade totalt 1kg.

Man tog även fram en rör-krängningshämmare med svetsade ändar (se card 7-8). 

1. (R.A.S. Sport #602)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
2. (R.A.S. Sport #602)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
3.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
4.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
5.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
6.

(Photo: Thor Rustad)
 
7.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
8.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)


Gen4 1986

Till slut så kom det en förbättring till den 3-delade bakaxeln, ett lättare drivaxelrör i det lätta materialet cromoly (se card 3), dessa rör var koniska på insidan och hade 1,5 grad negativ camber. Detta gjorde att denna bakaxeln blev hela 6 kilo lättare än dito stålaxel man haft 1984. Man flyttade en del av oljekylningen på säkerhetstanken av anledningen för förbättrade kylningsförhållanden (se card 4). IHÅLIGA DRIVAXLAR???

Dessa nya drivaxelrör hade redan klassats 1985 fast de kom inte att användas för ens 1986.

1. (Leif Wiik/ VMS #604)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
2.(VMS #607)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
3.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
4. (R.A.S. Sport #602)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)



Växellåda med sprängkåpa


Växlar, växlar och växlar! Ja det är något som är ett otroligt viktigt instrument i en car... Det är den som bestämmer utväxlingen (kraften) som skall lämna motorn och sedan överföras till bakaxeln som och sedan ut i bakhjulen som är kraftens slutdestination.


Gen1 1983

Första året i grupp-A så hade man inga andra alternativ än Volvos egna M46-växellåda, som förvisso rent maskinellt inte är något fel på men den lämnar inte mycket att önska för en tävlingscar... Ja inte utan att man får modifiera den VILKET INTE var tillåtet i grupp-A!




Gen2 1984

Och sedan kom en växellåda som var här för att stanna! Volvo köpte nämligen in en förnäm 5-växlad växellåda (kallad M-51) från Getrag i Tyskland. Och till detta paket behövdes ett bellhouse (sprängkåpa) för att matcha Volvos motor, denna var gjuten i magnesium, detta för att spara vikt självklart. Till denna hade man en hydraulisk koppling istället för den traditionella mekaniska med vajer samt att växellådan hade ett eget oljekylssystem (precis som bakaxeln).

Man hade redan klassat denna växellåda i oktober 1983 men då var racing säsongen snart slut så den kom först att nyttjas 1984. OBS! Denna växellåda skall ej förväxlas med Volvos egna Getrag M51-växellåda (också från Getrag) som kom till Volvo 262, detta var en speciallåda i ej massproducerat utskick.

1. (R.A.S. Sport #602)

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
 
2.

(Photo: Thor Rustad)
 
3.

(Photo: Torbjörn Johansson)
4.

(Photo: Torbjörn Johansson)



Oljetråg



Gen1 1983

Första generationens carar hade detsamma standard oljetråg som Volvo 240 hade.

1.
2


Gen2 1984
 

1.

(Photo: Rolf Öhberg)
 
2.

(Photo: Rolf Öhberg)
 
3.

(Photo: Rolf Öhberg)
 
4.

(Photo: Rolf Öhberg)
 
5.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)
6.

(Photo: 240grupp-A.se Archives)



Denna text är skriven av Björn Ohlson och ligger under Copyrightlagen och är förbjuden att kopiera eller användas på annat vis utan tillåtelse. Detta gäller även carder.